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#Analysis of recent #scientific #information on #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) virus - 10 February 2017 (@WHO, edited)

  Title : #Analysis of recent #scientific #information on #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) virus - 10 February 2017. Subject : Avian Influenza, ...

23 Mar 2017

#USA, #Alabama: #Avian #Influenza [#H7N9] #Updates and Helpful #Information [as of March 23 ‘17] (DoA, edited)

 

Title: #USA, #Alabama: #Avian #Influenza [#H7N9] #Updates and Helpful #Information [as of March 23 ‘17].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (North American Lineage), poultry epizootics in the US.

Source: US State of Alabama Department of Agriculture, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Avian Influenza Updates and Helpful Information

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Here is the current list of confirmed Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Alabama

[County   -   Farm Type   - Date Confirmed Positive for LPAI]

  1. Madison * – Backyard - 03/22/2017
  2. Lauderdale * – Commercial - #USA, #Alabama: #Avian #Influenza [#H7N9] - 03/22/2017
  3. Cullman – ​Commercial - 03/22/2017
  4. Madison – Backyard - 03/21/2017
  5. Pickens – Commercial - 03/21/2017
  6. Jackson – Backyard - 03/16/2017

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{*} = These are the sites mentioned in the March 14th press release.

(…)

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Keywords: USA; Updates; Avian Influenza; H7N9; Poultry; Alabama.

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22 Mar 2017

#USA, #Alabama: #Avian #Influenza [#H7N9] #Updates and #Information (DoA, March 22 ‘17)

 

Title: #USA, #Alabama: #Avian #Influenza [#H7N9] #Updates and #Information.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 (North American Lineage), poultry epizootics in the US State of Alabama.

Source: US State of Alabama Department of Agriculture, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Avian Influenza Updates and Helpful Information

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Here is the current list of confirmed Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Alabama

[County    -   Farm Type   - Date Confirmed Positive for LPAI]

  1. Cullman – ​Commercial - 03/22/2017
  2. Madison – Backyard - 03/21/2017
  3. Pickens – Commercial - 03/21/2017
  4. Jackson – Backyard - 03/16/2017

(…)

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Keywords: USA; Updates; Alabama; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Poultry.

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A #shooting incident [suspected #terror attack] happened on #Westminster Bridge in #London, March 22, 2017 (Reuters)

 

Title: A #shooting incident [suspected #terror attack] happened on #Westminster Bridge in #London, March 22, 2017.

Subject: Terror Attack, shooting incident in London.

Source: Reuters, full page: (LINK). via Instagram.

Code: [  !  ]

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Keywords: UK; England; Terrorism; Society.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Slovenia [infected #wildbirds] (#OIE, Mar. 22 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Slovenia [infected #wildbirds].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, wild birds epizootics in Slovenia.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (infection with) (non-poultry including wild birds) H5N8, Slovenia

Information received on 22/03/2017 from Dr Janez Posedi, Director General, Administration of the Republic of Slovenia for Food Safety, Veterinary Sector and Plant Protection (AFSVSPP), Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food, Ljubljana, Slovenia

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 3
    • Date of start of the event    01/01/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event    05/01/2017
    • Report date    22/03/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    22/03/2017
    • Reason for notification    New strain of a listed disease in the country
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 10
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Mallard:Anas platyrhynchos(Anatidae)  - … – 2    - 2    - 0    - 0
        • Mute Swan:Cygnus olor(Anatidae)  - … – 250    - 250    - 0    - 0
        • Greater White-fronted Goose:Anser albifrons(Anatidae)  - … – 1    - 1    - 0    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Mallard:Anas platyrhynchos(Anatidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
        • Mute Swan:Cygnus olor(Anatidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
        • Greater White-fronted Goose:Anser albifrons(Anatidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Wild Birds; Slovenia.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Vietnam [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Mar. 22 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Vietnam [a #poultry #outbreak].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N1 subtype, poultry epizootics in Vietnam.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, Vietnam

Information received on 22/03/2017 from Dr Dong Pham Van, Director General, Chief Veterinary Officer, Department of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Hanoï, Vietnam

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 5
    • Date of start of the event    14/02/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event    15/02/2017
    • Report date    22/03/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    22/03/2017
    • Reason for notification    Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    10/2016
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N1
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    the whole country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 1
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Destroyed    - Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 794    - 396    - 396    - 398    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - 49.87%    - 49.87%    - 100.00%    - 100.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N1 ; Poultry; Vietnam.

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#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 [Asian Lineage] – #Global situation #update, 22 March 2017 (#FAO, edited)

 

Title: #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 [Asian Lineage] – #Global situation #update, 22 March 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (Asian Lineage), enzootic in poultry and human cases in China.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ][     ]

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Avian Influenza H7N9 [Asian Lineage] – Global situation update, 22 March 2017

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The next update will be issued on 29 March 2017

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Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H7N9 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

Overview

  • Situation:
    • Influenza A(H7N9) virus with pandemic potential.
  • Country:
    • China; three human cases originated in China and were reported in Malaysia (1) and Canada (2).
  • Number of human cases:
    • 1349 confirmed; 497 deaths (since February 2013)
  • Provinces/municipalities:
    • [China]
      • Beijing,
      • Chongqing,
      • Shanghai and
      • Tianjin municipalities;
      • Anhui,
      • Fujian,
      • Guangdong,
      • Guizhou,
      • Hebei,
      • Henan,
      • Hubei,
      • Hunan,
      • Jiangsu,
      • Jiangxi,
      • Jilin,
      • Liaoning,
      • Qinghai,
      • Shandong,
      • Sichuan,
      • Yunnan and
      • Zhejiang;
      • Hong Kong SAR;
      • Macao SAR,
      • Guangxi,
      • Ningxia Hui and
      • Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regions;
    • [Taiwan],
    • [Malaysia]
      • Sabah;
    • [Canada]
      • British Columbia.
  • Animal/environmental findings:
    • around 2,500 virological samplesfrom the environment, chickens, pigeons, ducks and a tree sparrow tested positive; positives mainly from live bird markets, vendors and some commercial or breeding farms.
  • Highly pathogenic virus findings:
    • Out of the 1292 confirmed human cases, H7N9 virus isolates from three cases (two from Guangdong and one from Taiwan Provinces) were found to be highly pathogenic for chickens.
    • In addition, the H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in 16 chicken and 6 environmental samples from Guangdong Province.
  • Note:
    • The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) have confirmed a H7N9 highly pathogenic (Tennessee), and a H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (Tennessee, Alabama, Kentucky).
    • Sequencing of the genome confirmed that they are of North American wild bird lineage origin.
    • These viruses are thus not the same as the ones currently circulating in China. [reference1, reference 2, reference 3, reference 4, reference 5]
  • FAO actions:
    • liaise with China and partners, monitor situation, monitor virus evolution, conduct market chain analysis, risk assessment, surveillance guidance and communication.

 

Map. Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Note:  Human cases are depicted in the geographic location where they were reported; for some cases, exposure may have occurred in a different geographic location. Precise location of 18 human cases in Anhui (1), Beijing (1), Guangdong (1), Hebei (2), Hunan (1), Hubei (2), Jiangsu (1), Jiangxi (5), Sichuan (2) and Zhejiang (2) Provinces are currently not known, these cases are therefore not shown on the map.

 

Situation update

  • Animals
    • 16 March: MoA published the results of the national animal H7N9 surveillance for the month of February [reference]:
      • Out of a total of 444,950 samples (328,211 serum samples and 116,739 virology samples) collected from 19,181 locations in 27 provinces, 756 serum and 97 virology samples tested positive.
      • H7 serologically positive samples were found in eight provinces namely Chongqing, Liaoning, Hubei, Henan, Shandong, Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Hunan; of which 694 positive chicken samples (more than 90%) were from farms or households.
      • H7N9 virologically positive samples were found in the following provinces:
        • Guangdong: 28 chicken and 7 environmental samples from 1 household, 21 markets/live bird trading areas;
        • Jiangsu: 17 chicken, 2 duck and 5 environmental samples from 4 households and 8 markets/live bird trading areas;
        • Hubei: 12 chicken and 5 environmental samples from 1 farm and 11 markets;
        • Fujian: 8 chicken samples from 7 markets; and 1 environmental sample from a market;
        • Henan: 1 chicken sample and 3 environmental samples from 1 live bird slaughter shop and 2 live bird trading area;
        • Zhejiang: 1 chicken sample and 3 environmental samples from 4 markets;
        • Liaoning: 1 chicken and 1 environmental sample from 1 market;
        • Chongqing: 1 chicken and 1 environmental sample from 1 farm.
      • No positives were found in Beijing; Tianjin; Hebei; Shanxi; Inner Mongolia; Jilin; Heilongjiang; Shanghai; Anhui; Fujian; Jiangxi; Shandong; Guangxi; Sichuan; Guizhou; Shaanxi; Qinghai; Ningxia; Xinjiang.
    • 14 March: the 2017 National Animal Disease Surveillance and Epidemiological Surveys Program was released by MoA, covering priority animal diseases [reference]. Annex 1 outlines locations, sample size, tests and responsibilities for influenza surveillance in animals.
      • Guangdong:
        • Zhongshan City announced a regular closure plan from 1 April 2017: LBMs will be suspended for three days twice a month (from 1 to 3 and from 15 to 17) between 1 November and 30 April (high season of avian influenza) and once a month (on the 15th) the rest of the year. [reference].
        • Zuzhou City: temporary closure of all the LBMs in the entire city from 20 March to 9 April [reference].
        • Shantou City: LBMs of the whole city were suspended from 18 to 20 March [reference].
        • According to the provincial CDC monitoring results, during the week 10, of the 847 environmental specimens from 69 LBMs in 21 cities, 32 samples tested positive for H7 subtype. The positive rate declined with 3.6% compared to 8.3% last week [reference].
      • Guangxi:
        • Yizhou City: due to the report of two human cases and a positive sample collected in a LBM, live bird trade of the entire city are suspended from 17 to 26 March (10 days) [reference].
        • Baise City: monthly suspension days of LBMs and live bird shops was set in Napo County on 14 and 15 March [reference].
      • Guizhou:
        • in Qiannan Prefecture, LBMs in Sandu County will be temporarily suspended of from 14 to 29 March [reference].
      • Hunan:
        • in Changsha City, all LBMs will be temporarily closed from 17 March to 6 April (21 days) [reference].
      • Jiangxi:
        • Shangrao County: for prevention purposes, the closure of all LBMs, including live bird trading area and white poultry slaughter & sales area in Xinzhou District is extended until 2 April [reference].
        • Pingxiang City: for prevention purposes, all LBMs are temporarily closed in the city from 13 to 31 March [reference].
  • Humans
    • Since the last update (15 March 2017), 29 new human cases have been reported in:
      • Guangxi (7),
      • Hunan (5),
      • Guangdong (3),
      • Guizhou (3),
      • Henan (3),
      • Jiangsu (3),
      • Hebei (2),
      • Chongqing (1),
      • Fujian (1), and
      • Jiangxi (1).
    • For detailed information on human cases, please refer to WHO's Disease Outbreak News.

 

Figure 1. Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province and origin as of 22 March 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province* and origin

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Figure 2. Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013 as of 22 March 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Figure 3. Incidence of officially reported human cases by month, based on onset date as of 22 March 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Incidence of officially reported human cases by week, based on onset date

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Note: For cases with unknown onset dates from wave 1 (n=7), wave 2 (n=2), wave 3 (n=146), wave 4 (n= 27) and wave 5 (n=434) reporting dates were used instead.

 

Publications

  • In addition to the surveillance findings by MoA and MoH, 1,728 virologically positive samples have also been reported in 12 peer-reviewed articles (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). A total of 71,920 samples have been collected in these studies since April 2013, of which 1,728 (2.4%) were positive for H7N9 (1,215 environmental samples, 501 chickens, 1 goose and 1 tree sparrow).
  • An analysis of the number of human infections during the five waves of H7N9 was published:
    • the clinical characteristics and risk factors for human infections do not appear to have changed.
    • The reported human infections during the fifth epidemic, total of 460 as of 24 February 2017, represent a significant increase compared with the first four epidemics, which resulted in 135 (first epidemic), 320 (second), 226 (third), and 119 (fourth epidemic) human infections [reference].

 

FAO’s support to countries

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Keywords: FAO; H7N9; Updates; Avian Influenza; Human; poultry; China.

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#Epidemiological #update: #YellowFever #outbreak in #Brazil, 22 Mar 2017 (@ECDC_EU, edited)

 

Title: #Epidemiological #update: #YellowFever #outbreak in #Brazil, 22 Mar 2017.

Subject: Sylvatic Yellow Fever Outbreak in Brazil, multi-state.

Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Epidemiological update: Yellow fever outbreak in Brazil, 22 Mar 2017

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​Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne viral infection present in some tropical areas of Africa and South America.

In South America, there are two transmission cycles of yellow fever:

  • A sylvatic cycle, involving transmission of the virus between Haemagogus or Sabethes mosquitoes and primates.
    • The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes from primates to humans when humans are visiting or working in the forest.
  • An urban cycle, involving transmission of the virus between Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and humans.
    • The virus is usually introduced in an urban area by a viraemic human who was infected in the forest.
  • Brazil has been experiencing an outbreak of yellow fever since December 2016. The outbreak was notified on 6 January 2017.

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After the WHO DON posted on 20 March, WHO recommend vaccination of international travellers above nine months going State of Rio de Janeiro, with the exception of the urban areas of Rio de Janeiro City and Niterói, and the State of São Paulo, with the exception of the urban areas of São Paulo City and Campinas.

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Weekly Summary

  • Between 6 and 16 March 2017, Brazil reported 20 additional cases of yellow fever, mostly in Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais.
    • On 15 March 2017, the state of Rio de Janeiro reported its two first confirmed autochthonous cases in the municipality of Casimiro de Abreu, located 135 km from the city of Rio de Janeiro.
  • On 10 March 2017, the Netherlands reported a confirmed case of yellow fever in a traveller returning from Suriname.
  • During week 10 of 2017, Ecuador reported a confirmed case of yellow fever in the province of Sucumbios, which borders Colombia.
    • Prior to this case, the last confirmed yellow fever case in Ecuador was reported in 2012 in the province of Napo.

 

Epidemiological Summary

  • On 6 January 2017, Brazil reported an outbreak of yellow fever. The index case had onset of symptoms on 18 December 2016. The first laboratory confirmation was notified on 19 January 2017.
  • Between 6 January and 16 March 2017, Brazil has reported 1 357 cases (933 suspected and 424 confirmed), including 249 deaths (112 suspected and 137 confirmed).
    • The case-fatality rate is 18.3% among all cases and 32.3% among confirmed cases.
  • States reporting suspected and confirmed autochthonous cases:
    • Minas Gerais has reported 1 074 cases (749 suspected and 325 confirmed), including 189 deaths (78 suspected and 111 confirmed).
    • Espírito Santo has reported 243 cases (150 suspected and 93 confirmed), including 48 deaths (26 suspected and 22 confirmed).
    • São Paulo has reported 15 cases (11 suspected and four confirmed), including four deaths (one suspected and three confirmed).
    • Rio de Janeiro has reported three cases (one suspected and two confirmed), including one confirmed death.
      States reporting suspected autochthonous cases:
    • Bahia has reported eight suspected cases, including one fatal.
    • Tocantins has reported six suspected cases, including one fatal.
    • Rio Grande do Norte has reported one suspected case, fatal.
    • Goiás has reported three suspected cases, not fatal.
  • In addition, investigations are ongoing to determine the probable infection site of four further suspected cases.
  • On 16 March 2017, authorities in the state of Rio de Janeiro identified 47 municipalities as a priority for the vaccination campaign, including the municipality of Casimiro de Abreu, where the two confirmed cases are reported.
  • The Ministry of Health of Brazil has launched mass vaccination campaigns in addition to routine vaccination activities.
    • As of 16 March 2017, 16.15 million extra doses of yellow fever vaccine had been sent to five states: Minas Gerais (7.5 million), São Paulo (3.25 million), Espírito Santo (3.45 million), Rio de Janeiro (1.05 million) and Bahia (900 000).
  • Sources:

 

ECDC Assessment

  • The ongoing outbreak should be carefully monitored, as the establishment of an urban cycle of yellow fever would have the potential to quickly affect a large number of people.
    • EU/EEA citizens who travel to, or live in, areas where there is evidence of yellow fever virus transmission should check their vaccination status and obtain medical advice about being vaccinated against yellow fever.
  • In Europe, Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of yellow fever in urban settings, is present in Madeira.
    • Recent studies have shown that Aedes albopictus can potentially transmit the yellow fever virus.
    • However, the risk of the virus being introduced into local competent vector populations in the EU through viraemic travellers from Brazil is considered to be very low, as the current weather conditions in Europe are not favourable for vector activity.
  • ECDC closely monitors this event in collaboration with the World Health Organization.

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- See more at: http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/press/news/_layouts/forms/News_DispForm.aspx?ID=1573&List=8db7286c-fe2d-476c-9133-18ff4cb1b568&Source=http%3A%2F%2Fecdc%2Eeuropa%2Eeu%2Fen%2FPages%2Fhome%2Easpx#sthash.mbNdUcn7.dpuf

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Keywords: ECDC; Updates; European Region; Yellow Fever; Brazil.

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21 Mar 2017

#Asian Lineage #Avian #Influenza A (#H7N9) Virus – Situation #Update, as of March 21 2017 (@CDCgov, edited)

 

Title: #Asian Lineage #Avian #Influenza A (#H7N9) Virus – Situation #Update, as of March 21 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (Asian lineage), enzootic in poultry and human cases in China.

Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ][     ]

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Asian Lineage Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus – Situation Update, as of March 21 2017

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Language: [ English | Español ]

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Background

  • Human infections with an Asian lineage avian influenza A (H7N9) virus (“Asian H7N9”) were first reported in China in March 2013.
  • Annual epidemics of sporadic human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses in China have been reported since that time.
  • China is currently experiencing its 5th epidemic of Asian H7N9 human infections.
  • This is the largest annual epidemic to date.
  • As of March 21, 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) had reported 509 human infections with Asian H7N9 virus during the 5th epidemic, making it the largest annual epidemic to date.
  • This brings the total cumulative number of human infections with Asian lineage H7N9 reported by WHO to 1,307.
  • During epidemics one through four, about 40 percent of people confirmed with Asian H7N9 virus infection died.

 

Epidemiology

  • Most human infections with avian influenza viruses, including Asian H7N9 virus, have occurred after exposure to poultry.
  • Asian H7N9 viruses continue to circulate in poultry in China.
  • Most reported patients with H7N9 virus infection have had severe respiratory illness (e.g., pneumonia).
  • Rare instances of limited person-to-person spread of this virus have been identified in China, but there is no evidence of sustained person-to-person spread.
  • Some human infections with Asian H7N9 have been reported outside of mainland China, but most of these infections have occurred among people who had traveled to mainland China before becoming ill.
  • Asian H7N9 viruses have not been detected in people or birds in the United States.

 

CDC Risk Assessment

  • While the current risk to the public’s health posed by Asian H7N9 virus is low, the pandemic potential of this virus is concerning.
  • Influenza viruses constantly change and it is possible that this virus could gain the ability to spread easily and sustainably among people, triggering a global outbreak of disease (i.e., a pandemic).
  • In fact, of the novel influenza A viruses that are of special concern to public health, Asian lineage H7N9 virus is rated by the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT)(https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/national-strategy/risk-assessment.htm) as having the greatest potential to cause a pandemic, as well as potentially posing the greatest risk to severely impact public health.
  • It is likely that sporadic human infections with Asian H7N9 virus associated with poultry exposure will continue to occur in China.
  • There is also a possibility of Asian H7N9 virus spreading to poultry in neighboring countries and human infections associated with poultry exposure may be detected in neighboring countries.
  • Asian H7N9 infections may continue to be detected among travelers returning from countries where this virus is present.
  • However, as long as there is no evidence of ongoing, sustained person-to-person spread, the public health risk assessment would not change substantially.

 

CDC Response

  • The U.S. Government supports international surveillance for seasonal and novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential, including Asian lineage H7N9.
  • CDC collaborates with clinical and public health laboratories located in all 50 states.
  • Each week, these laboratories routinely test human respiratory specimens for influenza and report those results to CDC. 
  • Any suspected novel influenza A virus, including an Asian lineage H7N9, detected at a public health laboratory is forwarded onto CDC for confirmatory testing. 
  • CDC is following this situation closely and is coordinating with domestic and international partners.
  • CDC takes routine preparedness actions to counter pandemic threats as they are identified, including developing candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) to use for vaccine production in case vaccine is needed.
  • CDC has prepared a risk assessment of Asian H7N9. Other routine preparedness activities include ongoing review of new viruses and virus sequences to assess their genetic and antigenic properties as well as their antiviral susceptibility.
  • This information informs an ongoing risk assessment process, which guides further actions.
  • CDC also has issued guidance to clinicians and public health authorities in the United States, as well as provided information for people traveling to China.
  • CDC will provide updated information as it becomes available.

 

Asian H7N9 Outbreak Characterization

  • Asian H7N9 virus infections in poultry in China
  • Sporadic infections in people; most with poultry exposure
  • Rare limited person-to-person spread
  • No sustained or community transmission

 

What's New & Updated

  • H7N9: What should I do?
    • CDC does not have any new or special recommendations for the U.S. public at this time regarding H7N9. CDC will keep you updated. Stay informed.
    • Since Asian H7N9 is not spreading easily from person to person at this time, CDC does not recommend that people delay or cancel trips to China. The World Health Organization also is watching this situation closely and does not recommend any travel restrictions.
    • CDC advises travelers to China to take some common sense precautions, like not touching birds and washing hands often. Poultry and poultry products should be fully cooked. CDC will update its advice for travelers if the situation in China changes. This guidance is available at Avian Flu (H7N9) in China.

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Recently Reported

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Keywords: US CDC; USA; Updates; China; Human; Poultry; Avian Influenza; H7N9.

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#USA, #Texas: Reported #Zika Virus Cases – March 21, 2017 (DoH, edited)

 

Title: #USA, #Texas: Reported #Zika Virus Cases – March 21, 2017.

Subject: Zika Virus, current epidemiological situation in Texas.

Source: US State of Texas Department of Health, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Reported Zika Virus Cases – March 21, 2017

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DSHS provides updates every Tuesday on the number of Zika virus disease cases in Texas by the patient’s county of residence.

As of the week ending March 17, seven Zika cases have been reported for 2017 with 317 cases reported for 2015 and 2016.

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[County – No. of Cases]

  1. Bexar – 1
  2. Brazoria – 1
  3. Cameron- 2
  4. Collin – 1
  5. Lubbock – 1
  6. Smith – 1

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Full data for previous years is available at TexasZika.org.

DSHS will continue to update the page as additional 2016 cases are reported.

 

National Zika Pregnancy Registry

Texas has reported 234 individuals into the CDC’s Zika Pregnancy Registry. The registry includes pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika infection and their infants, regardless of laboratory evidence. Texas provides data to the Zika Pregnancy Registry weekly.

The registry casts a wider net – beyond reported Zika cases – to track and follow pregnancies that may have been impacted by Zika.

(…)

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Keywords: USA; Updates; Zika Virus; Texas.

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#MERS-CoV, #Saudi Arabia [four #camels’ #outbreaks] (#OIE, Mar. 21 ‘17)

 

Title: #MERS-CoV, #Saudi Arabia [four #camels’ #outbreaks].

Subject: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, camels’ epizootics in Saudi Arabia.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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MERS-CoV, Saudi Arabia

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Information received on 21/03/2017 from Dr Mohammed Alblowi, Director General, Diagnostic Veterinary Laboratories, Ministry of Enviroment, Water and Agriculture, Riyadh , Saudi Arabia

  • Summary
    • Report type Follow-up report No. 4
    • Date of start of the event 29/12/2015
    • Date of confirmation of the event 20/01/2016
    • Report date 21/03/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE 21/03/2017
    • Reason for notification Emerging disease
    • Morbidity 2.36 %
    • Mortality 0 %
    • Zoonotic impact No
    • Causal agent MERS-CoV
  • New outbreaks (4)
    • Outbreak 1 - Mahail, 'ASIR
      • Date of start of the outbreak 07/12/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (08/01/2017)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Camelidae – 17 – 3 – 0 – 0 – 0
    • Outbreak 2 - Almadinah, AL MADINAH
      • Date of start of the outbreak 28/12/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (29/01/2017)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Camelidae – 4 – 1 – 0 – 0 – 0
    • Outbreak 3 - Reniah, MAKKAH
      • Date of start of the outbreak 31/12/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (01/02/2017)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Camelidae – 3 – 1 – 0 – 0 – 0
    • Outbreak 4 - Al Qasim, AL QASIM
      • Date of start of the outbreak 13/02/2017
      • Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Camelidae – 4 – 2 – 0 – 0 – 0
  • Summary of outbreaks
    • Total outbreaks: 4
      • Total animals affected: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Camelidae – 28 – 7 – 0 – 0 – 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species - Apparent morbidity rate - Apparent mortality rate - Apparent case fatality rate - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Camelidae - 25.00% - 0.00% - 0.00% - 0.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Screening
      • Disinfection / Disinfestation
      • Traceability
      • Quarantine
      • Surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone
      • Vaccination prohibited
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied
      • No other measures
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; MERS-CoV; Camels; Saudi Arabia.

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