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#GBS & #Microcephaly: #Zika #causality #statement, 7 September 2016 (@WHO)

  Title : #GBS & #Microcephaly: #Zika #causality #statement, 7 September 2016. Subject : Zika Virus and related complications, consens...

27 Sep 2016

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Nigeria [two new #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, September 27 2016)

 

Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Nigeria [two new #poultry #outbreaks].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N1 subtype, new epizootics in Nigeria.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, Nigeria

Information received on 27/09/2016 from Dr Gideon Mbursa Mshelbwala, Director, Veterinary Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, ABUJA, Nigeria

  • Summary
    • Report type Follow-up report No. 41
    • Date of start of the event 02/01/2015
    • Date of confirmation of the event 08/01/2015
    • Report date 27/09/2016
    • Date submitted to OIE 27/09/2016
    • Reason for notification Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence 27/07/2008
    • Manifestation of disease Clinical disease
    • Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype H5N1
    • Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to the whole country
    • Related reports
      • Immediate notification (09/01/2015) / Follow-up report No. 1 (16/01/2015) / Follow-up report No. 2 (23/01/2015) / Follow-up report No. 3 (02/02/2015) / Follow-up report No. 4 (19/02/2015) / Follow-up report No. 5 (02/03/2015) / Follow-up report No. 6 (13/05/2015) / Follow-up report No. 7 (22/06/2015) / Follow-up report No. 8 (07/07/2015) / Follow-up report No. 9 (04/08/2015) / Follow-up report No. 10 (26/08/2015) / Follow-up report No. 11 (14/09/2015) / Follow-up report No. 12 (19/09/2015) / Follow-up report No. 13 (08/10/2015) / Follow-up report No. 14  (16/11/2015) / Follow-up report No. 15 (15/12/2015) / Follow-up report No. 16 (04/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 17 (11/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 18 (13/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 19 (19/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 20 (21/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 21 (25/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 22 (26/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 23 (02/02/2016) / Follow-up report No. 24 (04/02/2016) / Follow-up report No. 25 (08/02/2016) / Follow-up report No. 26 (09/02/2016) / Follow-up report No. 27 (11/02/2016) / Follow-up report No. 28 (15/02/2016) / Follow-up report No. 29 (17/02/2016) / Follow-up report No. 30 (22/02/2016) / Follow-up report No. 31 (29/02/2016) / Follow-up report No. 32 (04/03/2016) / Follow-up report No. 33 (07/03/2016) / Follow-up report No. 34 (08/03/2016) / Follow-up report No. 35 (14/03/2016) / Follow-up report No. 36 (20/03/2016) / Follow-up report No. 37 (29/03/2016) / Follow-up report No. 38 (03/04/2016) / Follow-up report No. 39 (06/06/2016) / Follow-up report No. 40 (09/06/2016) / Follow-up report No. 41 (27/09/2016)
  • New outbreaks (2)
    • Outbreak 1 - Toro, Toro, BAUCHI
      • Date of start of the outbreak 11/09/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (15/09/2016)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds – 9700 – 104 – 104 – 9596 – 0
          • Affected population Ten-weeks-old pullets and 104-weeks-old layers
    • Outbreak 2 - Koso, Karu, FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY
      • Date of start of the outbreak 13/09/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (15/09/2016)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds – 100000 – 10000 – 10000 – 90000 – 0
          • Affected population Eighteen-weeks-old pullets
    • Summary of outbreaks
      • Total outbreaks: 2
        • Total animals affected: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
          • Birds – 109700 – 10104 – 10104 – 99596 – 0
        • Outbreak statistics: Species - Apparent morbidity rate - Apparent mortality rate - Apparent case fatality rate - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
          • Birds - 9.21% - 9.21% - 100.00% - 100.00%
            • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments
    • Poor farm biosecurity.
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Disinfection / Disinfestation
      • Quarantine
      • Surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone
      • Stamping out
      • Official destruction of animal products
      • Vaccination prohibited
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied
      • Traceability
  • Diagnostic test results
    • Laboratory name and type – Species – Test - Test date – Result
      • National Veterinary Research Institute Vom (Regional Reference Laboratory) – Birds - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) - 15/09/2016 – Positive
      • National Veterinary Research Institute Vom (Regional Reference Laboratory) – Birds - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) - 15/09/2016 – Positive
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; H5N1; Avian Influenza; Poultry; Nigeria.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Nigeria [one new #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, September 27 2016)

 

Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Nigeria [one new #poultry #outbreak].

Subject: Avian Influenza; H5N1 subtype; new epizootic in Nigeria.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

______

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, Nigeria

Information received on 27/09/2016 from Dr Gideon Mbursa Mshelbwala, Director, Veterinary Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, ABUJA, Nigeria

  • Summary
    • Report type Follow-up report No. 38
    • Date of start of the event 24/12/2014
    • Date of confirmation of the event 08/01/2015
    • Report date 27/09/2016
    • Date submitted to OIE 27/09/2016
    • Reason for notification Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence 09/2007
    • Manifestation of disease Clinical disease
    • Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype H5N1
    • Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
    • Related reports
      • Immediate notification (16/01/2015) / Follow-up report No. 1 (19/01/2015) / Follow-up report No. 2 (26/01/2015) / Follow-up report No. 3 (18/02/2015) / Follow-up report No. 4 (02/03/2015) / Follow-up report No. 5 (03/05/2015) / Follow-up report No. 6 (13/05/2015) / Follow-up report No. 7 (16/07/2015) / Follow-up report No. 8 (29/07/2015) / Follow-up report No. 9 (04/08/2015) / Follow-up report No. 10 (11/08/2015) / Follow-up report No. 11 (17/08/2015) / Follow-up report No. 12 (03/09/2015) / Follow-up report No. 13 (08/09/2015) / Follow-up report No. 14 (14/09/2015) / Follow-up report No. 15 (21/09/2015) / Follow-up report No. 16 (22/09/2015) / Follow-up report No. 17 (23/09/2015) / Follow-up report No. 18 (28/09/2015) / Follow-up report No. 19 (06/10/2015) / Follow-up report No. 20 (15/10/2015) / Follow-up report No. 21 (19/10/2015) / Follow-up report No. 22 (27/10/2015) / Follow-up report No. 23 (29/10/2015) / Follow-up report No. 24 (16/11/2015) / Follow-up report No. 25 (19/11/2015) / Follow-up report No. 26 (24/11/2015) / Follow-up report No. 27 (15/12/2015) / Follow-up report No. 28 (02/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 29 (05/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 30 (11/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 31 (13/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 32 (19/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 33 (21/01/2016) / Follow-up report No. 34 (18/03/2016) / Follow-up report No. 35  (29/03/2016) / Follow-up report No. 36 (28/06/2016) / Follow-up report No. 37 (03/08/2016) / Follow-up report No. 38 (27/09/2016)
  • New outbreaks (1)
    • Outbreak 1 - Oshimili, Oshimili North, DELTA
      • Date of start of the outbreak 12/09/2016
      • Outbreak status Resolved (15/09/2016)
      • Epidemiological unit Backyard
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds – 100 – 90 – 90 – 10 – 0
          • Affected population Thirteen-weeks-old pullets
    • Summary of outbreaks
      • Total outbreaks: 1
        • Total animals affected: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
          • Birds – 100 – 90 – 90 – 10 – 0
        • Outbreak statistics: Species - Apparent morbidity rate - Apparent mortality rate - Apparent case fatality rate - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
          • Birds - 90.00% - 90.00% - 100.00% - 100.00%
            • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments
    • Poor farm biosecurity measures.
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Disinfection / Disinfestation
      • Quarantine
      • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
      • Modified stamping out
      • Vaccination prohibited
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied
      • No other measures
  • Diagnostic test results
    • Laboratory name and type – Species – Test - Test date – Result
      • National Veterinary Research Institute Vom (Regional Reference Laboratory) – Birds - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) - 15/09/2016 – Positive
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; H5N1; Avian Influenza; Poultry; Nigeria.

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#MERS-CoV, #Saudi Arabia: No New Cases reported in the last 24 hours (@SaudiMOH, September 27 2016)

 

Title: MERS-CoV, Saudi Arabia: No New Cases reported in the last 24 hours.

Subject: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Epidemic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, daily update.

Source: Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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MOH: 'No New Coronavirus Cases Recorded

9/27/2016

______

New Cases:

  • No reports

New Recoveries: [Sex, Age, Citizenship, Resident in]

  1. F, 78, Saudi, Saqaqa.

New Deaths: [Sex, Age, Citizenship, Resident in]

  1. M, 70, Saudi, Hail.

Cumulative number of confirmed cases and deaths since June 2012:

[Total No. of Cases – Total No. of Deaths – Patients under treatment]

  • 1456At least 611 - 3

___

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Keywors: MERS-CoV; Updates; Saudi Arabia.

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#Singapore, #Zika #Cases & #Clusters as of September 27 2016 (NEA, edited)

 

Title: #Singapore, #Zika #Cases & #Clusters as of September 27 2016.

Subject: Zika Virus, ongoing vector-borne epidemic in Singapore.

Source: Singapore National Environment Agency, full page: (LINK)

Code: [     ]

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Zika Cases & Clusters as of September 27 2016

___

  • Case notified on 27 Sep 2016 (as at 3pm) - 1
    • Epi-week 35 (28 Aug - 3 Sep 2016) -  215
    • Epi-week 36 (4 Sep - 10 Sep 2016) - 103
    • Epi-week 37 (11 Sep 2016 - 17 Sep 2016) - 62
    • Epi-week 38 (18 Sep 2016 - 24 Sep 2016) - 11
    • Epi-week 39 (25 Sep 2016 - 27 Sep 2016 as at 3pm)  - 3

 

Location of Active Zika Clusters As of 27 Sep 2016

[S/N – Locality]

  1. Aljunied Cres (Blk 95,97,98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112)
    • Aljunied Rd
    • Aljunied Rd (Blk 125)
    • Circuit Rd (Blk 61,85)
    • Geylang East Ave 1 (Blk 126)
    • Geylang East Ctrl (Blk 1 22)
    • Lor 21A,23,25 Geylang
    • Paya Lebar Way (Blk 91,120,121,122,123)
    • Pipit Rd (Blk 54, 56, 92A)
    • Sims Dr (Blk 42A,43,44)
    • Sims Pl (Blk 52,53)
      • 293 cases as of 27 Sep 2016, of which 4 cases with onset in the last 2 weeks;
  2. Bedok Nth Ave 2 (Blk 514)
    • Bedok Nth Ave 3 (404,405,507)
    • Bedok Nth St 3 (Blk 525)
      • 5 cases as of 27 Sep 2016, of which 0 case with onset in the last 2 weeks;
  3. Joo Seng Rd (Blk 17, 18, 21)
    • Vernon Pk
      • 4 cases as of 27 Sep 2016, of which 0 case with onset in the last 2 weeks;
  4. Bishan St 12 (Blk 122, 123, 134)
      • 5 cases as of 27 Sep 2016, of which 0 case with onset in the last 2 weeks;
  5. Elite Ter
    • Fidelio St
    • Jln Tua Kong (Park East)
    • Tua Kong Green
    • Siglap Rd (Flamingo Valley)
      • 13 cases as of 27 Sep 2016, of which 1 case with onset in the last 2 weeks;
  6. Ubi Ave 1, Cres
      • 4 cases as of 27 Sep 2016, of which 0 case with onset in the last 2 weeks;
  7. Balam Rd (Blk 29)
    • Circuit Rd (Blk 35)
    • Jln Raya
      • 3 cases as of 27 Sep 2016, of which 0 case with onset in the last 2 weeks;
  8. Sengkang Ctrl (Blk 272C)
    • Sengkang East Ave (Blk 279C)
      • 2 cases as of 27 Sep 2016, of which 1 case with onset in the last 2 weeks;
  9. Hougang Ave 7 (Blk 325)
      • 2 cases as of 27 Sep 2016, of which 0 case with onset in the last 2 weeks.

___

Last updated on 26 Sep 2016

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Keywords: Singapore; Updates; Zika Virus.

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#USA, #Texas: Reported #Zika Virus Cases – September 27, 2016 (DoH, edited)

 

Title: #USA, #Texas: Reported #Zika Virus Cases – September 27, 2016.

Subject: Zika Virus, daily epidemiological update by the DoH.

Source: US State of Texas Department of Health, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Reported Zika Virus Cases – September 27, 2016

___

Texas has had 204 reported cases of Zika virus disease. All the cases were associated with travel to an area where Zika is being spread.

This count includes 12 pregnant women, two infants infected before birth, and two people who had sexual contact with travelers.

 

Texas Zika Cases by County

[County  - Cases]

  1. Angelina  - 1
  2. Bell  - 6
  3. Bexar  - 15
  4. Brazos – 3
  5. Burnet  - 1
  6. Cameron – 2
  7. Collin  - 5
  8. Dallas  - 35
  9. Denton  - 6
  10. El Paso  - 3
  11. Ellis  - 1
  12. Fort Bend  - 7
  13. Frio  - 1
  14. Galveston – 7
  15. Gray  - 1
  16. Grayson  - 1
  17. Gregg  - 1
  18. Hamilton  - 1
  19. Harris  - 56
  20. Jefferson  - 2
  21. Lee  - 1
  22. Lubbock  - 1
  23. Matagorda  - 1
  24. Medina  - 1
  25. Midland  - 1
  26. Montgomery  - 1
  27. Palo Pinto  - 1
  28. Randall  - 1
  29. Tarrant  - 22
  30. Travis  - 8
  31. Upshur  - 1
  32. Val Verde  - 1
  33. Walker  - 1
  34. Williamson  -  5
  35. Webb  - 2
  36. Wise  - 1
    • Total – 204

Note: Zika case data for Texas will be updated each weekday no later than 11 a.m.

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Keywords: USA; Updates; Zika Virus; Texas.

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26 Sep 2016

#Images of #Europa by #Hubble ST show possible #water #vapor #plumes (NASA)

 

Title: #Images of #Europa by #Hubble ST show possible #water #vapor #plumes.

Subject: Solar System Objects Observation, Jupiter’s Moon Europa.

Source: NASA, full page: (LINK). via Instagram.

Code: [  R  ]

______

 

Images of #Europa by the #Hubble Space Telescope show possible high altitude water vapor plumes erupting from the icy moon's surface. This composite image shows suspected plumes of water vapor erupting at the 7 o'clock position off the limb of Jupiter's moon Europa. The plumes, photographed by Hubble's Imaging Spectrograph, were seen in silhouette as the moon passed in front of Jupiter. The observation increases the possibility that missions to Europa may be able to sample Europa's ocean without having to drill through miles of ice. Read the full article: http://go.nasa.gov/2cwSJln (link in bio) #icymoon #observation #space #telescope #exploration #NASA #JPL #ESA #USGS #STScl #NASABeyond

Una foto pubblicata da NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (@nasajpl) in data:

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Keywords: NASA; Research; Jupiter; Europa; Astrobiology; Solar System; Solar System; Space.

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#USA, #Florida: Department of Health Daily #Zika #Update (September 26 2016)

 

Title: #USA, #Florida: Department of Health Daily #Zika #Update.

Subject: Zika Virus, daily epidemiological update from Florida DoH.

Source: US State of Florida Department of Health, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

______

Department of Health Daily Zika Update

By Florida Department of Health, Office of Communications / September 26, 2016 / Press Release / Contact: Communications Office, NewsMedia@flhealth.gov - (850) 245-4111

___

Tallahassee, Fla.

In an effort to keep Florida residents and visitors safe and aware about the status of the Zika virus,  the department will issue a Zika virus update each week day. Updates will include a Zika case count by county and information to keep Floridians informed and prepared.

In order to keep the public informed, the department has posted our investigation process here.

There are six new travel related cases today with two in Broward, two in Miami-Dade, one in Collier and one in Polk.

Please visit our website to see the full list of travel-related cases.

There are 10 new non-travel related cases today.

  • One is a Palm Beach resident and the department is investigating where exposure occurred.
  • One is associated with the Miami Beach investigation.
  • Five are Miami-Dade residents and the department is investigating where exposure occurred.
  • Three are cases from July associated with Wynwood that the department just received additional confirmatory test results from CDC. It is important to note that these are not new cases and they do not affect the lift of the Wynwood zone as all had symptom onset in July.

 

Number of Zika cases by county

[County - Number of Cases (all travel related)]

  1. Alachua – 10
  2. Bay – 3
  3. Brevard – 14
  4. Broward – 113
  5. Charlotte – 1
  6. Citrus – 2
  7. Clay – 3
  8. Collier – 7
  9. Duval – 8
  10. Escambia – 3
  11. Flagler – 2
  12. Hernando – 4
  13. Highlands – 1
  14. Hillsborough – 23
  15. Lake – 3
  16. Lee – 12
  17. Leon – 2
  18. Manatee – 4
  19. Marion – 3
  20. Martin – 2
  21. Miami-Dade – 225
  22. Monroe – 4
  23. Nassau – 1
  24. Okaloosa – 3
  25. Okeechobee – 1
  26. Orange – 79
  27. Osceola – 29
  28. Palm Beach – 36
  29. Pasco – 8
  30. Pinellas – 16
  31. Polk – 24
  32. Santa Rosa – 1
  33. Sarasota – 3
  34. Seminole – 21
  35. St. Johns – 4
  36. St. Lucie – 5
  37. Volusia – 9
  • Total cases not involving pregnant women  - 689
    • Cases involving pregnant women regardless of symptoms – 90

Data as of Sep. 26, 2016 - 3:35 PM ET

_______

DOH continues door-to-door outreach and targeted testing in Pinellas, Palm Beach and Miami-Dade counties and mosquito abatement and reduction activities are also taking place around the locations that are being investigated.

DOH believes ongoing transmission is only taking place within the identified area in Miami Beach in Miami-Dade County, see map below.

One case does not mean ongoing active transmission is taking place. DOH conducts a thorough investigation by sampling close contacts and community members around each case to determine if additional people are infected. If DOH finds evidence that active transmission is occurring in an area, the media and the public will be notified.

For a complete breakdown of non-travel and travel-related Zika infections to-date, please see below.

 

[Infection Type - Infection Count]

  • Travel-Related   Infections of Zika – 689
  • Non-Travel   Related Infections of Zika - 105
  • Infections   Involving Pregnant Women – 90
  • Out   of State Cases (not Florida Residents) – 10
    • Total -  894

______

The department is currently conducting 11 active investigations. The department has closed 18 investigations. Information regarding the investigations can be found here. If investigations reveal additional areas of active transmission, the department will announce a defined area of concern. 

Active Investigations

Information on Active Investigations

When a local case of Zika virus is confirmed through laboratory testing, the department conducts a thorough investigation around the case to determine if additional people are infected.

The department interviews and tests close contacts and community members around the case. Knowing if additional people are infected helps the department determine if there is a zone where mosquitoes are transmitting the virus.

Not every case results in a designation of active transmission in an area. In some instances, a case of Zika is an isolated incident with no additional people infected.

For more information on the department’s testing and investigation process, click here

____

  • Current Number of Active Investigations: 11
    • Miami-Dade County:
      • 7 open investigations
    • Pinellas County:
      • 1 open investigation
    • Palm Beach:
      • 3 open investigations
  • Current Number of Closed Investigations: 18
    • Miami-Dade County:
      • 15 closed investigations
    • Palm Beach County:
      • 2 closed investigation
    • Broward County:
      • 1 closed investigation
  • Sampling Activities For Active Investigations
    • Miami Beach in Miami-Dade County
      • [Total # of Samples Collected – Positive – Negative - Pending Results]
        • 1,039 – 45 – 990 – 4
    • Palm Beach County – 3 Investigations
      • [Total # of Samples Collected – Positive – Negative - Pending Results]
        • 77 – 1 – 76 – 0
    • Miami-Dade Investigations Outside of Wynwood and Miami Beach – 7 Investigations
      • [Total # of Samples Collected – Positive – Negative - Pending Results]
        • 7 – 5 – 1 – 1
    • Pinellas County – 1 Investigation
      • [Total # of Samples Collected – Positive – Negative - Pending Results]
        • 71 – 0 – 70 – 1
    • Wynwood Area in Miami-Dade County
        • Note: This investigation is closed, but the department is providing the sampling results below for reference.
      • [Total # of Samples Collected – Positive – Negative - Pending Results]
        • 524 – 33 – 491 – 0

Data as of Sep. 26, 2016 - 3:35pm ET

______

The department has conducted Zika virus testing for more than 8,297 people statewide. Florida currently has the capacity to test 6,573 people for active Zika virus and 8,516 for Zika antibodies. At Governor Scott’s direction, all county health departments now offer free Zika risk assessment and testing to pregnant women.

(…)

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Keywords: USA; Updates; Zika Virus; Florida.

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#India, #Chikungunya: #AIIMS identifies #virus type, same as 2006 #outbreak (Deccan Herald, Sept. 26 ‘16)

 

Title: #India, #Chikungunya: #AIIMS identifies #virus type, same as 2006 #outbreak.

Subject: Chikungunya Fever, ongoing vector-borne epidemic in India.

Source: Deccan Herald, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Chikungunya: AIIMS identifies virus type, same as 2006 outbreak

Doctors at AIIMS have identified the genotype of the chikungunya virus which has afflicted nearly 3,700 people in the national capital this season and concluded it is the same as the one that caused the 2006 outbreak of the vector-borne disease.

"We have identified the genotype of the virus--East Central South African--and sent the report to the National Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP). It is the same genotype that was in circulation in 2006 outbreak," Lalit Dar of Department of Microbiology at AIIMS told PTI.

Chikungunya is generally considered a non-fatal disease. It is caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which has one serotype only. There are three genotypes of this serotype-- Asian, West African and East Central South African.

A genotype is the part (DNA sequence) of the genetic makeup of a cell and serotypes are groups within a single species of microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses, which share distinctive surface structures.

At least 15 deaths due to complications triggered by the disease have been reported at various hospitals in the city and health experts had earlier conjectured that the virus may have "evolved" this time.

(…)

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Keywords: Chikungunya Fever; India.

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#NASA’s #Hubble Spots Possible #Water #Plumes Erupting on #Jupiter's Moon #Europa (September 26 2016)

 

Title: #NASA’s #Hubble Spots Possible #Water #Plumes Erupting on #Jupiter's Moon #Europa.

Subject: Solar System Object Observation, Jupiter’s Moon Europa.

Source: NASA, full page: (LINK).

Code: [  R  ]

______

Sept. 26, 2016 / RELEASE 16-096

NASA’s Hubble Spots Possible Water Plumes Erupting on Jupiter's Moon Europa

___

Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have imaged what may be water vapor plumes erupting off the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. This finding bolsters other Hubble observations suggesting the icy moon erupts with high altitude water vapor plumes.

The observation increases the possibility that missions to Europa may be able to sample Europa’s ocean without having to drill through miles of ice.

“Europa’s ocean is considered to be one of the most promising places that could potentially harbor life in the solar system,” said Geoff Yoder, acting associate administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington.

“These plumes, if they do indeed exist, may provide another way to sample Europa’s subsurface.”

The plumes are estimated to rise about 125 miles (200 kilometers) before, presumably, raining material back down onto Europa's surface. Europa has a huge global ocean containing twice as much water as Earth’s oceans, but it is protected by a layer of extremely cold and hard ice of unknown thickness. The plumes provide a tantalizing opportunity to gather samples originating from under the surface without having to land or drill through the ice.

The team, led by William Sparks of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore observed these finger-like projections while viewing Europa's limb as the moon passed in front of Jupiter.

The original goal of the team's observing proposal was to determine whether Europa has a thin, extended atmosphere, or exosphere. Using the same observing method that detects atmospheres around planets orbiting other stars, the team realized if there was water vapor venting from Europa’s surface, this observation would be an excellent way to see it.

"The atmosphere of an extrasolar planet blocks some of the starlight that is behind it," Sparks explained.

"If there is a thin atmosphere around Europa, it has the potential to block some of the light of Jupiter, and we could see it as a silhouette. And so we were looking for absorption features around the limb of Europa as it transited the smooth face of Jupiter."

In 10 separate occurrences spanning 15 months, the team observed Europa passing in front of Jupiter. They saw what could be plumes erupting on three of these occasions.

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope took direct ultraviolet images of the icy moon Europa transiting across the disk of Jupiter. Out of 10 observations, Hubble saw what may be water vapor plumes on three of the images. This adds another piece of supporting evidence to the existence of water vapor plumes on Europa; Hubble also detected spectroscopic signatures of water vapor in 2012.

(…)

This work provides supporting evidence for water plumes on Europa. In 2012, a team led by Lorenz Roth of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, detected evidence of water vapor erupting from the frigid south polar region of Europa and reaching more than 100 miles (160 kilometers) into space. Although both teams used Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph instrument, each used a totally independent method to arrive at the same conclusion.

"When we calculate in a completely different way the amount of material that would be needed to create these absorption features, it's pretty similar to what Roth and his team found," Sparks said.

"The estimates for the mass are similar, the estimates for the height of the plumes are similar. The latitude of two of the plume candidates we see corresponds to their earlier work."

But as of yet, the two teams have not simultaneously detected the plumes using their independent techniques. Observations thus far have suggested the plumes could be highly variable, meaning that they may sporadically erupt for some time and then die down. For example, observations by Roth’s team within a week of one of the detections by Sparks’ team failed to detect any plumes.

If confirmed, Europa would be the second moon in the solar system known to have water vapor plumes. In 2005, NASA's Cassini orbiter detected jets of water vapor and dust spewing off the surface of Saturn's moon Enceladus.

Scientists may use the infrared vision of NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope, which is scheduled to launch in 2018, to confirm venting or plume activity on Europa. NASA also is formulating a mission to Europa with a payload that could confirm the presence of plumes and study them from close range during multiple flybys.

“Hubble’s unique capabilities enabled it to capture these plumes, once again demonstrating Hubble’s ability to make observations it was never designed to make,” said Paul Hertz, director of the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

“This observation opens up a world of possibilities, and we look forward to future missions -- such as the James Webb Space Telescope -- to follow up on this exciting discovery.”

The work by Sparks and his colleagues will be published in the Sept. 29 issue of the Astrophysical Journal.

The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and ESA (the European Space Agency.) NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the telescope. STScI, which is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy in Washington, conducts Hubble science operations.

For images and more information about Europa and Hubble, visit:

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Sean Potter / Laurie Cantillo, Headquarters, Washington, 202-358-1536 / 202-358-1077, sean.potter@nasa.gov / laura.l.cantillo@nasa.gov / Ann Jenkins / Ray Villard, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, 410-338-4488 / 410-338-4514, ​jenkins@stsci.edu / villard@stsci.edu

Last Updated: Sept. 26, 2016

Editor: Karen Northon

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Keywords: Research; NASA; Updates; Jupiter; Europa; Solar System; Space; Astrobiology.

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#US #CDC adds #StKitts and Nevis to interim #travel #guidance related to #Zika virus (@CDCgov, September 26 2016)

 

Title: #US #CDC adds #StKitts and Nevis to interim #travel #guidance related to #Zika virus.

Subject: Zika Virus, travel guidance.

Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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CDC adds St. Kitts and Nevis to interim travel guidance related to Zika virus

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Media Statement / For Immediate Release: Monday, September 26, 2016 - Contact: Media Relations, (404) 639-3286

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CDC is working with other public health officials to monitor for ongoing spread of Zika virus‎. Today, CDC posted a Zika virus travel notice for St. Kitts and Nevis. CDC has issued travel notices (level 2, “practice enhanced precautions”) for people traveling to destinations with Zika. For a full list of affected countries/regions, visit http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/zika-travel-information.

As more information becomes available, CDC’s travel notices will be updated. Travelers to areas with cases of active Zika virus transmission who have not already been infected with Zika virus can get it from mosquito bites. Mosquitoes that spread Zika bite during the day and night. There is no vaccine or medicine for Zika virus. The best way to avoid Zika virus infection is to prevent mosquito bites.

Some travelers to areas with Zika will become infected while traveling but will not become sick until they return home and they might not have any symptoms. To help stop the spread of Zika, travelers should use insect repellent for three weeks after travel to areas with Zika to prevent mosquito bites.

Some people who are infected do not have any symptoms. People who do have symptoms have reported fever, rash, joint pain, and red eyes. The sickness is usually mild with symptoms that last from several days to a week. People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika. Travelers to areas with Zika should monitor for symptoms or sickness upon return. If they become sick, they should tell their healthcare professional when and where they have traveled.

CDC has received reports of Zika virus being spread by sexual contact with sick returning travelers. Until more is known, CDC continues to recommend that pregnant women and women trying to become pregnant take the following precautions.

 

Pregnant women

  • Should not travel to any area with Zika.
  • If you must travel to or live in one of these areas, talk to your healthcare provider first and strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites.
  • If you or your partner live in or travel to an area with Zika, use condoms*, the right way, every time you have sex or do not have sex throughout the pregnancy. Sex includes vaginal, anal, and oral sex.

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*Barriers that prevent passing Zika through sex include male and female condoms and dental dams. Dental dams are latex or polyurethane sheets used between the mouth and vagina or anus during oral sex.

 

Women trying to get pregnant

  • Before you or your partner travel, talk to your healthcare provider about your plans to become pregnant and the risk of Zika virus infection.
  • You and your partner should strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites.

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For additional information on preventing the spread of Zika through sex, visit www.cdc.gov/zika/transmission/sexual-transmission.html.

Current CDC research suggests that Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is strongly associated with Zika; however, only a small proportion of people with recent Zika virus infection get GBS. CDC is continuing to investigate the link between GBS and Zika to learn more.

For more information on Zika, visit www.cdc.gov/zika.

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Keywords: US CDC; USA; Updates; St Kitts & Nevis; Travel Warnings; Zika Virus.

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